Challenge: In many R&D and commercial applications, heavy metal contamination of reaction products is an important concern. Residual ruthenium and ruthenium complexes may catalyze side reactions or adversely impact yields of the subsequent synthetic steps. For example, in the pharmaceutical industry, regulations require that the ruthenium contamination in active pharmaceutical ingredients must not exceed 10 ppm. It is common to observe ruthenium contamination greater than 2500 ppm following an olefin metathesis reaction.
Apeiron’s Solution: Apeiron chemists designed and developed new heterogeneous catalysts. FixCat/SBA-15 (AS2062) is a ruthenium metathesis catalyst, supported on SBA-15, that delivers high turn-over number with minute traces of leeching. This new catalyst is fully compatible with both flow chemistry and batch processes, allowing catalyst reuse (up to over 20 runs) and routinely affords ruthenium product contamination below 5 ppm.
Batch reaction – 1 h batch runs resulted in cumulative TON of 35,000 for catalyst FixCat/SBA-15 (blue bars) compared to AquaMet (AS2038) (purple bars)
Continuous flow setup – efficiency comparison for different FixCat loadings on SBA-15. Non-covalent catalyst immobilization allows facile modulation of the catalyst loading to suit specific reactions.